Deutsche STI-Gesellschaft (DSTIG). Sexuell übertragbare Infektionen (STI) – Beratung, Diagnostik und Therapie (S2k-Leitlinie). AWMF-Registernr.: 059-006. 2018.
Fode M, Fusco F, Lipshultz L et al. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility: A Systematic Review. European Urology Focus 2016; 2(4): 383-393.
Graves KJ, Novak J, Secor WE et al. A systematic review of the literature on mechanisms of 5-nitroimidazole resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis. Parasitology 2020; 147(13): 1383-1391.
Henderson JT, Henninger M, Bean SI. Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (AHRQ Evidence Syntheses; No. 192). 2020.
Masha SC, Cools P, Sanders EJ et al. Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV infection acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect 2019; 95(1): 36-42.
Nenoff P, Manos A, Ehrhard I et al. [Nonviral sexually transmitted infections-epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, therapy. Part 3: Treponemes, Gardnerella and trichomonads]. Hautarzt 2017; 68(2): 136-148.
Obiero J, Ogongo P, Mwethera PG et al. Topical microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021; (3): CD007961.
Pschyrembel Online. 2021.
Weyerstahl T, Stauber M. Duale Reihe Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2013.
Wiyeh AB, Mome RK, Mahasha PW et al. Effectiveness of the female condom in preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2020; 20(1): 319.
Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021; 70(4): 1-187.
IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.
Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.
Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.