What are you looking for?

Current topic

Photo of a couple on bicycles

Symptoms after thrombosis (post-thrombotic syndrome)

Post-thrombotic syndrome can develop after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It causes your leg to become swollen and painful. Over time, the skin may change color and start to itch. Exercise and medical compression stockings can relieve the symptoms.

About us

We are here to help you make informed decisions! Our website offers trustworthy and easy-to-understand information on a broad range of health topics. Our goal is to allow you to use this knowledge in everyday life. The information can help you to talk with doctors and other medical professionals, but not replace appointments.

IQWiG

IQWiG is an independent scientific institution in Germany. It is funded through contributions from the German statutory health insurance funds. Its legal responsibilities include the assessment of diagnostic tests and medical treatments. InformedHealth.org is the English-language version of IQWiG’s German website Gesundheitsinformation.de. It provides the general public with independent, ad-free and cost-free information on many common health issues.

How we work

Our content is developed according to international quality standards and includes articles, graphics and films. We are a diverse team with backgrounds in science, medicine and journalism. We base our information on both high-quality scientific studies and the needs of patients and consumers. Our team ensures that the content of InformedHealth.org is easy to understand, complete and up to date.

Further topics

  • Stethoscope icon

    Physical therapy

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy) is used to treat acute and chronic symptoms, and also to prevent future problems or for rehabilitation after long-te...

  • Heart icon

    How does the ankle work?

    The ankle is the joint that connects the bones in the lower leg to the foot bones. The upper ankle allows us to move our feet upwards, downwards, and...

  • Ankle sprains

    Ankle sprains

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common types of injury. When an ankle is twisted, the ligaments are overstretched. In the worst case, they might te...

  • Ankle fractures

    Ankle fractures

    If you're unlucky, twisting your foot badly can result in a broken ankle. This is a more serious injury that may affect one or more bones. Is surgery...

  • Appendicitis

    Appendicitis

    Appendicitis is an inflammation or infection of the appendix. The appendix is usually quickly removed through surgery to prevent complications. It ca...

  • Stethoscope icon

    A guide to psychotherapy in Germany: Where can I find help?

    Many people don’t know who to turn to if they have mental health problems or illnesses. We have put together some information to help you find your w...

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    ADHD is a disorder in which children are especially inattentive, impulsive or hyperactive. Severe ADHD can cause major problems in the life and every...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most common and best studied forms of psychotherapy. It is a combination of two therapeutic approach...

  • Symptoms after thrombosis (post-thrombotic syndrome)

    Symptoms after thrombosis (post-thrombotic syndrome)

    Post-thrombotic syndrome can develop after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The leg swells up and is painful. Over time, the skin might change color and s...

  • Fibromyalgia

    Fibromyalgia

    The main symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic (long-term) deep muscle pain in different parts of the body. It is now known that fibromyalgia has someth...

  • Heart icon

    What do the male sex organs do?

    The male sex organs allow men to have children. But they have other important jobs, too: The sex organs produce hormones, control the process of boys...

  • Heart icon

    How do the female sex organs work?

    The female sex organs make it possible for women to become pregnant and give birth to children. But they have other important jobs, too: They produce...

  • Bedwetting

    Bedwetting

    Bedwetting is more common among children and teenagers than many people think. Regular nighttime “accidents” can be very troubling for the whole fami...

  • Infertility

    Infertility

    Not being able to have children is usually a source of great emotional turmoil. People often take it for granted that they will be able to. Many coup...

  • Premenstrual syndrome

    Premenstrual syndrome

    Sometimes even women don't quite understand what happens to them on the days leading up to their period. Women who have premenstrual syndrome (PMS) m...

  • Tenosynovitis

    Tenosynovitis

    If a tendon sheath is overused, it can become inflamed and swollen. Known as tenosynovitis, this most commonly occurs in the hands, arms and feet. Th...

  • Developmental disorders in children and teenagers

    Developmental disorders in children and teenagers

    Children develop at different rates. Some learn to walk earlier than others, for instance, but then they take longer to start talking. This is comple...

  • Heart icon

    How does the spine work?

    The spine is our body’s central support structure. It keeps us upright and connects different parts of our skeleton to each other, including the head...

  • Scoliosis in teenagers

    Scoliosis in teenagers

    Teenagers who have scoliosis have a curved, twisted spine. It is not clear why this happens. Often, there is only a slight curve and it just has to b...

  • Bursitis

    Bursitis

    Signs of bursitis include swelling and pain – for instance, in an elbow or knee. It can arise when too much pressure is put on one of the protective ...

  • Falls in older people

    Falls in older people

    There are plenty of tripping hazards in the average home, such as curled-up edges of rugs or mats, a loose cable or slippery tiles in the bathroom. B...

  • Stethoscope icon

    How does ventilation therapy for respiratory problems work?

    Ventilation therapy may be needed in people with lung disease – for instance, severe pneumonia.

  • Stethoscope icon

    How does mechanical ventilation work during an operation?

    Depending on the strength of an anesthetic used in surgery, it may also stop our breathing. Then a ventilator machine does the breathing for us.

  • Stethoscope icon

    What is overdiagnosis?

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of a medical condition that would never have caused any symptoms or problems.

  • Heart icon

    The lymphatic system

    The lymphatic system is an important part of our body's immune system. Among other things, it helps us to fight infections.

  • Stethoscope icon

    How does chemotherapy work?

    Besides surgery and radiation, medications are commonly used to treat cancer. One typical example of this is chemotherapy, which uses medications cal...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Cancer: What do the codes in the doctor’s letter mean?

    There is an international system for the classification of cancerous tumors. Known as TNM classification, it helps doctors and researchers to describ...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What happens during a biopsy?

    A biopsy (taking a tissue sample) is one of the most commonly used medical examinations. Tissue samples can be analyzed in order to find out, for ins...

  • Heart icon

    How does the menstrual cycle work?

    During the monthly hormone cycle, the membranes lining the inside of the womb prepare for the possible implantation of a fertilized egg. The membrane...

  • Heart icon

    Causes and signs of edema

    Edema (or "oedema") means swelling. It arises when part of the body becomes swollen because fluid builds up in the tissue. It is most common in the a...

  • Heart icon

    How do cancer cells grow and spread?

    Cells become specialized in order to perform particular tasks. Due to the instructions in their DNA, cells normally “know” which other cells to join ...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What is laparoscopy?

    Laparoscopy is used to identify and also treat illnesses in the abdomen and the pelvic region. Unlike open surgery (laparotomy), only small incisions...

  • Breast cancer

    Breast cancer

    Being diagnosed with breast cancer often makes people feel very frightened and anxious. But if you get breast cancer for the first time and it hasn’t...

  • Ovarian cysts

    Ovarian cysts

    Ovarian cysts are sacs filled with fluid or tissue that form in the ovaries. These cysts are usually non-cancerous (benign) and most of them go away ...

  • Surgery

    Surgery

    People who are preparing to have surgery usually have a lot of questions: What are the chances of success? What risks are associated with it? What ca...

  • Photo of young children washing their hands

    Worms in children (pinworms)

    Pinworms (threadworms) are common. These tiny parasites lay their eggs around the anus. That can cause itching and make children scratch their bottom...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What happens during a skin examination?

    If you have bothersome skin problems or notice any unusual changes, it’s a good idea to see a doctor. If family doctors discover skin changes, rashes...

  • Heart icon

    How does skin work?

    Our skin is our heaviest and largest organ, making up about one seventh of our body weight: Depending on your height and body mass, it weighs between...

  • Heart icon

    What are microbes?

    Microbes are tiny living things that are found all around us. Some microbes make us ill, but others are important for our health. The most common typ...

  • Heart icon

    What happens in puberty?

    Puberty is a special phase of life where children develop into young adults. It is a time full of changes in the body (such as growth and the develop...

  • Heart icon

    Growth in childhood and puberty

    Childhood and puberty are phases of growth where our bodies gradually become heavier and taller. This growth begins in the womb and ends after pubert...

  • Photo of boys playing football

    Tinea versicolor

    If a fungus grows a lot it may lead to a medical condition. Tinea versicolor is one example. This skin condition is caused by a yeast fungus, and is ...

  • Vaginal yeast infection (thrush)

    Vaginal yeast infection (thrush)

    Vaginal yeast infections are particularly common in women of childbearing age. The symptoms include itching, burning and abnormal vaginal discharge. ...

  • Photo of a patient talking with her doctor

    Bacterial vaginosis

    In bacterial vaginosis, certain bacteria in the vagina grow a lot more than they normally do. This is usually harmless. It often goes unnoticed, but ...

  • Heart icon

    How do the kidneys work?

    People usually have two kidneys, which look like oversized beans. The kidneys are located to the right and left of the spine, just below your ribcage...

  • Heart icon

    How does the urinary system work?

    The main organs of our urinary system are the kidneys – our body’s “sewage treatment plants”: They filter toxins out of the body, as well as other su...

  • Tendon overuse injuries (tendinopathy)

    Tendon overuse injuries (tendinopathy)

    If you regularly put a lot of strain on a tendon, the resulting overuse might eventually lead to pain in the tendon. Tendon overuse injuries (tendino...

  • Alzheimer's disease

    Alzheimer's disease

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. People with Alzheimer's become forgetful and increasingly have difficulty expressing themse...

  • Cold sores

    Cold sores

    Cold sores lead to the formation of painful blisters around the lips, typically only on one side of the mouth. People who have had a cold sore in the...

  • Genital herpes

    Genital herpes

    Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Herpes virus infections actually don’t often lead to a disease, thou...

  • Hearing loss and deafness in adults

    Hearing loss and deafness in adults

    Along with aging, the causes of hearing loss mainly include noise and long-lasting ear infections.

  • Stethoscope icon

    What happens in a sleep study?

    If you’ve had sleep problems for a while, and previous medical examinations and advice haven't helped, a sleep study is usually the next step. In the...

  • Heart icon

    What is “normal” sleep?

    A good night’s sleep is when you fall asleep easily, do not fully wake up during the night, do not wake up too early, and feel refreshed in the morni...

  • Heart icon

    How is our sleep regulated?

    Our sleep follows a particular pattern: We normally get tired in the evening and are awake during the day. But this pattern isn’t only based on dayli...

  • Insomnia

    Sleep disorders and problems (insomnia)

    If you sleep badly at night, you're not alone. About a third of people have trouble sleeping every now and then. Certain relaxation techniques and sl...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

    If you feel confident that you can do it, for instance following a first aid course, you should combine chest compressions with mouth-to-mouth resusc...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): What you need to know

    If someone is unconscious and not breathing normally, it’s very important to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Doing so can sa...

  • Heart icon

    What is cholesterol and how does arteriosclerosis develop?

    Cholesterol is an essential raw material for your body. For example, cholesterol is needed to make certain hormones and it’s an important building bl...

  • Coronary artery disease

    Coronary artery disease

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) develops if the blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen become too narrow. These blood vessels are known as cor...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What happens during cardiac catheterization?

    Cardiac catheterization is a procedure used to show on a computer monitor diseases that affect the heart, the cardiac valves or the coronary arteries...

  • Stethoscope icon

    How do you use an automated external defibrillator (AED)?

    Defibrillators are devices that give a controlled electric shock and can be used to resuscitate someone whose heart has stopped suddenly. Many places...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Which screening tests are paid for by statutory health insurance funds in Germany?

    Children and adults can have various screening tests and examinations. Statutory health insurance funds in Germany cover the costs of many of these f...

  • High cholesterol

    High cholesterol

    High cholesterol is considered one of a range of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is mainly caused by lifestyle choices a...

  • Heart icon

    Foot deformities

    In its normal form, the structure of the human foot allows us to walk in an upright position. Feet can become deformed as a result of external factor...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Dietary advice and nutritional therapy services

    Dietary advice and nutritional therapy services both aim to improve people’s health or keep them healthy and to have a positive effect on illnesses c...

  • Bunions

    Bunions

    Bunions are among the most common foot deformities. The big toe leans towards the other toes and the joint at the base of the big toe bulges out. Thi...

  • Stethoscope icon

    How can you get enough calcium?

    Medical societies recommend that adults get between 700 mg and 1,200 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. It is possible to get this amount purely thr...

  • Lactose intolerance

    Lactose intolerance

    People who are lactose-intolerant only tolerate small amounts of lactose. Eating too many dairy products causes digestive problems, including a bloat...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Special therapies ("Heilmittel") and medical aids ("Hilfsmittel") in Germany

    In Germany, “Heilmittel” and “Hlifsmittel” can be prescribed to relieve symptoms or help in daily life. Which treatments and medical aids do they inc...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What is voice therapy?

    The aim of voice therapy is to get rid of or improve problems with the creation of vocal sounds (phonation) in the voice box. After completing therap...

  • Heart icon

    How does the larynx work?

    The larynx (voice box) is the area that connects the throat to the windpipe (trachea). Without it, we would hardly be able to sing or speak. It also ...

  • Vocal nodules

    Vocal nodules

    Vocal nodules typically make your voice hoarse, and it may sound raspy and breathy too. These small non-cancerous growths usually go away again if yo...

  • Heart icon

    What do hormones do?

    Hormones play a role in many (often crucial) processes in our bodies. They regulate things like our energy and water levels, growth and reproductive ...

  • Photo of a patient having her thyroid examined by a doctor

    Graves’ disease

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of an overactive thyroid. It sends the body’s metabolism into overdrive, making lots of processes (such as t...

  • Photo of woman taking medication

    Hashimoto’s disease

    Hashimoto’s disease is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of an underactive thyroid in Germany and other countr...

  • Heart icon

    How does the stomach work?

    The stomach is a muscular hollow organ. It takes in food from the food pipe, mixes it, starts breaking it down and then passes it on to the small in...

  • Diverticular disease and diverticulitis

    Diverticular disease and diverticulitis

    Diverticula are small, balloon-like pouches in the lining of the intestine, in which the contents of the bowel can get stuck. They are often harmless...

  • Ingrown toenail

    Ingrown toenail

    Ingrown toenails are a common problem, especially on the big toes. Cutting your toenails the wrong way is often the cause. Find out how to cut them p...

  • Heartburn and GERD

    Heartburn and GERD

    Many people are familiar with heartburn – a burning pain between your stomach and throat. In gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), these symptoms ...

  • Heart icon

    How do bowel movements work?

    During a bowel movement, the indigestible parts of our food leave our body. Several parts of the end of the digestive tract control bowel movements: ...

  • Enlarged hemorrhoids

    Enlarged hemorrhoids

    We all have hemorrhoids. They are nothing more than “cushions” of blood vessels and supporting tissue, found at the end of the rectum. Hemorrhoids on...

  • Heart icon

    How does the eye work?

    Vision is the result of a complex process. For our brain to be able to create an image of our surroundings, the eye needs to convert light into elect...

  • Type 1 diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes

    In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can only produce very little insulin or none at all. People who have this type of diabetes need to inject insulin ev...

  • Conjunctivitis

    Conjunctivitis

    Typical conjunctivitis symptoms include itching and burning in the affected eye, and stuck-together eyelids when you wake up. Although this infection...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Disease management program for type 1 diabetes in Germany

    Disease management programs (DMPs) are structured treatment programs that aim to improve the management of chronic illnesses. They include regular do...

  • Heart icon

    Structure of the nails

    Fingernails and toenails are made from skin cells. Structures that are made from skin cells are called skin appendages. Hairs are also skin appendage...

  • Heart icon

    How does the intestine work?

    The intestine (bowel) is a winding muscular tube extending from the stomach to the anus. Its main purpose is to digest food. But the intestine is not...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What happens during a gastroscopy?

    A gastroscopy (examination of the stomach) can help confirm or rule out the presence of medical conditions like gastritis or peptic ulcers. In this p...

  • Photo of three young men

    Alcohol

    Drinking alcohol in moderation from time to time is not concerning, but greater amounts can soon become a problem. We will outline how much alcohol i...

  • Photo of a father and son

    Peptic ulcers

    The risk of getting peptic ulcers (stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers) increases with age. They are usually caused by bacteria or the long-term use o...

  • Heart icon

    How do joints work?

    Most joints are movable connections between at least two bones. These joints are made up of the surfaces of the bones, a joint cavity, and a joint ca...

  • Photo of a doctor feeling a patient's belly

    Gastritis

    Gastritis is common. The symptoms of acute gastritis include stomach pain, heartburn, nausea and feeling full. It is usually caused by certain bacter...

  • Photo of a runner holding his foot in pain

    Pain under the foot (plantar fasciitis)

    One of the most common causes of pain under the foot is an inflammation of a band of thick connective tissue.

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    If one part of the largest blood vessel in the belly (the abdominal aorta) starts bulging, it is known as an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This conditio...

  • Heart icon

    How does the brain work?

    The brain works like a big computer. It processes information that it receives from the senses and body, and sends messages back to the body. But the...

  • Brain aneurysm

    Brain aneurysm

    A brain aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. It often goes unnoticed. But some people may have symptoms – or their aneurysm is more li...

  • Pelvic organ prolapse

    Pelvic organ prolapse

    For various reasons, the connective tissue in women’s pelvic floor may become weaker. As a result the womb, bladder or the last part of the bowel (re...

  • stethoscope icon

    What are immunological tests?

    Immunological tests can be used for various purposes, such as detecting viral infections, checking whether someone has an allergy, discovering colore...

  • Colorectal cancer

    Colorectal cancer

    Colorectal cancer is sometimes considered to be a disease that typically affects men. That's not true: Although it is more likely to develop at an ea...

  • Cervical cancer

    Cervical cancer

    Cervical cancer is usually a rare consequence of an infection with particular sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPV). Infections are proba...

  • Gingivitis and periodontitis

    Gingivitis and periodontitis

    A gum inflammation (gingivitis) is usually harmless and goes away quickly. But it might spread to the periodontium (the soft tissue and bone that sup...

  • Heart icon

    How does the knee work?

    The knee joint connects the upper and lower leg to one another. It is needed for pretty much all forms of movement with your legs – whether running, ...

  • Using medication

    Using medication

    Using medication sounds easy but it can be complicated, like when you need to use several medications over a longer period of time. What's the best w...

  • Osteoarthritis of the knee

    Osteoarthritis of the knee

    Osteoarthritis of the knee typically starts with knee pain, at first only during or after movement. The risk is increased by things like being overwe...

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

    People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may constantly wash their hands because they are afraid of germs, or may not be able to stop counting...

  • Generalized anxiety disorder

    Generalized anxiety disorder

    We all feel scared sometimes. This can help protect us in dangerous situations: It makes us more alert so that we can react quickly. But fear can bec...

  • Head lice

    Head lice

    Head lice are tiny parasites that live in our hair and feed on blood from our scalp. Their bites can itch. They usually lay their eggs close to the s...

  • Stethoscope icon

    Understanding thyroid tests

    The thyroid gland is a vitally important endocrine (hormone) gland that is mainly involved in the body’s energy metabolism. It is located at the fron...

  • Heart icon

    How does the pituitary gland work?

    The pituitary gland regulates various body functions and plays an important role in balancing hormone levels in the body. It is a protrusion at the b...

  • Heart icon

    How does the thyroid gland work?

    The thyroid gland is a vital hormone-producing gland: It plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the human body. It helps to ...

  • Heavy periods

    Heavy periods

    While some women hardly have any problems due to their period, others regularly feel tired and unwell. This is often due to pain and very heavy perio...

  • Underactive thyroid

    Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)

    If you constantly feel tired, have a slow pulse and constipation, you may wonder why. These types of symptoms can be caused by various things, but th...

  • Overactive thyroid

    Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)

    The thyroid gland regulates a lot of functions in the body. It is said to be overactive if it makes too many thyroid hormones. This can lead to sympt...

  • Uterine fibroids

    Uterine fibroids

    Many women have benign (non-cancerous) growths known as fibroids in or on their womb (uterus). Most fibroids are small and don't cause any problems. ...

  • Acute pancreatitis

    Acute pancreatitis

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that typically causes very sudden and very severe upper abdominal pain. The pain is so extreme ...

  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein. This can cause symptoms like tenderness, skin redness, swelling in the lower leg...

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Most people know what it's like to wake up in the night and realize that their hand has "fallen asleep." The hand then feels numb or tingly. Carpal t...

  • Pneumonia

    Pneumonia

    Pneumonia often leads to a sudden high fever, the feeling that you are very unwell, a cough and shortness of breath. People who are otherwise in good...

  • Gallstones

    Gallstones

    We all have abdominal pain and digestion problems from time to time. In most cases they're harmless. But if you have cramping pain in your upper abdo...

  • Psoriasis

    Psoriasis

    Psoriasis is characterized by clearly defined patches of red and scaly skin. This non-contagious condition typically starts in adulthood and comes an...

  • Photo of a man holding his hand in pain

    Psoriatic arthritis (Psoriasis with joint inflammation)

    Psoriatic arthritis leads to pain and stiffness in several joints, as well as exhaustion. It is usually caused by psoriasis. Various treatments can r...

  • Hearing loss and deafness

    Hearing loss and deafness in children

    In Germany and other countries, babies are routinely given hearing tests immediately after birth. The goal is to diagnose and treat hearing problems ...

  • Endometriosis

    Endometriosis

    "Endometriosis? Never heard of it." This is what many people say, even though it is a common condition in women. While some hardly notice that they h...

  • Metastatic breast cancer

    Metastatic breast cancer

    Sometimes breast cancer is only detected when it has already spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). With well-planned and individualized tre...

  • Sinusitis

    Sinusitis

    The typical signs of sinusitis (inflamed paranasal sinuses) are a stuffy nose, pain and a feeling of pressure in the forehead or jaw. Sometimes it de...

  • Eczema

    Eczema

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition that often occurs in children. The main symptom is a very itchy rash. Acute flare-ups can greatly affect qua...

  • Stethoscope icon

    How can you self-manage and adjust anticoagulants in the long term?

    Oral anticoagulants are used to prevent blood clots from forming. This can lower the risk of certain cardiovascular diseases, especially strokes.

  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    It's normal for vision to gradually get worse with age. Some people also have medical conditions that further affect their vision. Age-related macula...

  • Stethoscope icon

    What are blood thinners (anti-clotting medications) and how are they used?

    Anti-clotting medications prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels and heart. This lowers the risk of medical problems that are caused b...

  • Atrial fibrillation

    Atrial fibrillation

    The most common sign of atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rate that is often too fast. Although the condition isn’t immediately life-threaten...

  • Measles

    Measles

    Measles is caused by viruses and is very contagious – both in children and adults. The typical signs of measles are a light red rash and flu-like sym...

  • Photo of a boy being examined by a doctor

    Mumps

    Mumps is a viral infection that has become rare since the introduction of a routine vaccination. It is usually spread through tiny droplets of spit t...

  • Photo of a girl crying

    Rubella (German measles)

    Rubella usually goes unnoticed or only causes mild cold-like symptoms. Later, a pink or red spotty skin rash might develop. If a woman has rubella ea...

  • Heart icon

    What are blood clots and what causes them?

    When we are injured, our body stops the bleeding by forming a clump of blood (a blood clot) that closes the wound. But sometimes blood clots form in ...

  • Photo of an older couple and a doctor

    Type 2 diabetes

    Many people who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are completely taken by surprise – for instance, if high blood sugar levels are discovered during ...

  • Photo of a pregnant woman and her doctor

    Gestational diabetes

    Pregnant women are often surprised to find out they have gestational diabetes because it usually doesn’t cause any symptoms. But this type of diabete...

  • Photo of someone washing their hands

    Common colds

    Sneezing and a sore throat are often the very first signs you are getting a cold. Once your nose has become stuffy, you may feel weak and generally i...

  • Photo of a father and his son

    Croup

    If young children have a cold and the area around their larynx (voice box) becomes inflamed, it's known as croup. The typical symptoms include a bark...

  • Wrist injuries

    Wrist injuries

    Breaking a fall with your hands can sometimes lead to a wrist injury. If the wrist joint is overstretched or bent too far, the joint capsule, ligamen...

  • Dislocated kneecap

    Dislocated kneecap

    When a kneecap is dislocated, it comes out of the groove that it normally fits into. This is painful and may look frightening. It mainly happens duri...

  • Patellofemoral pain syndrome (runner’s knee)

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (runner’s knee)

    Pain at the front of the knee is usually caused by overuse. It is especially common in people who do a lot of sports, such as running, mountaineering...

  • Scarlet fever

    Scarlet fever

    Doctors can usually diagnose scarlet fever quite easily based on the typical rash and a dark-red tongue, sometimes referred to as a “strawberry tongu...

  • Menopause

    Menopause

    What happens in a woman’s body in the time leading up to menopause? What symptoms might accompany the hormonal changes, and how can they be relieved?...

  • Seborrheic dermatitis

    Seborrheic dermatitis

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a non-infectious skin condition. It leads to scaly patches of skin with oily dandruff-like flakes, especially on the face an...

  • Lazy eye (amblyopia) in children

    Lazy eye (amblyopia) in children

    Amblyopia is a common vision problem in children. It is caused when one eye provides sharper images than the other eye does. Because the brain prefer...

  • Presbyopia

    Presbyopia

    Most people start noticing the effects of presbyopia in their mid-forties: It becomes harder to see close-up things clearly. For instance, y ou have ...

  • Small objects in the eye

    Small objects in the eye

    Whether you are outside biking or doing DIY projects at home – it’s easy for small objects to get into your eye. There, they can injure the surface o...

  • Dulaglutide (Trulicity) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Dulaglutide (Trulicity) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Dulaglutide (trade name: Trulicity) has been approved in Germany since November 2014 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes when diet and exercise alon...

  • Drug allergies

    Drug allergies

    Medications can have a number of side effects, including allergic reactions. People who have a drug allergy are often no longer sure which medication...

  • Wisdom teeth

    Wisdom teeth

    Many people associate wisdom teeth with "being pulled," a bruised and swollen cheek, and an ice pack. Removing wisdom teeth is usually unpleasant and...

  • Insect venom allergies

    Insect venom allergies

    We all get stung or bitten by insects every now and then – and most people end up with a small, red, itchy bump as a result. But those who are allerg...

  • Allergic contact dermatitis

    Allergic contact dermatitis

    In allergic contact dermatitis, the immune system overreacts to certain substances – sometimes to very small amounts – that normally wouldn’t cause a...

  • Food allergies

    Food allergies

    In food allergies, even small amounts of the food can be enough to trigger an allergic reaction (e.g. itching and swelling in the mouth and throat, o...

  • Hay fever

    Hay fever

    If you have hay fever, you're not alone: About 1 in 4 people have this allergy. Various medications and allergen-specific immunotherapy often provide...

  • Allergies

    Allergies

    Allergies arise if the body's immune system overreacts to substances (allergens) that are usually harmless, such as pollen. The symptoms are sometime...

  • Allergies to animals

    Allergies to animals

    People aren't allergic to the fur of animals, but rather to proteins that are found on the animal's dander (skin flakes), sweat or spit. The allergy ...

  • Dust mite allergies

    Dust mite allergies

    Dust mite allergies usually develop in childhood or puberty. The symptoms, such as sneezing, are caused by substances that are mainly found in the fe...

  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    If you feel like everything is spinning around you and rocking from side to side, you probably have vertigo. Vertigo can occur while standing, walkin...

  • Photo of an older couple looking for health information on the internet

    How can I find good-quality information about the coronavirus?

    The coronavirus is on everyone’s mind right now. Many people are finding out about it on the internet or from sharing on social networks. There is a ...

  • Localized prostate cancer

    Localized prostate cancer

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men. But it is also one of the types of cancer with the best chances of recovery. It...

  • Tooth decay

    Tooth decay

    Preventing tooth decay is basically child's play: It's all about a healthy diet, less candy and thorough dental hygiene. Read about the most importan...

  • Shoulder pain

    Shoulder pain

    Shoulder pain is one of the most common orthopedic problems. It usually arises beneath the bone that forms the “roof” of the shoulder (the acromion)....

  • Hernias

    Hernias

    Most hernias occur when part of the bowel or peritoneum pushes through a gap in the abdominal wall. Inguinal (groin) hernias are the most common kind...

  • Misaligned teeth and jaws

    Misaligned teeth and jaws

    People are considered to have misaligned teeth or jaws if their set of teeth is very different to that of most others. This type of problem is common...

  • Epilepsy

    Epilepsy

    In epilepsy, the brain or certain parts of the brain are too active. Some people have their first seizure in childhood, while others have their first...

  • Warts

    Warts

    Most people get warts at some point. Warts are contagious and can be very persistent. Children and teenagers are particularly likely to get them beca...

  • Acute cystitis

    Acute cystitis

    Cystitis is very common in women. It is caused by a bacterial infection. The main symptom is a burning pain when peeing, often accompanied by an incr...

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

    Irritable bowel syndrome

    The typical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Although IBS isn't dangerous, the symptoms ...

  • Acne

    Acne

    Most teenagers will have pimples at some point. Severe acne can be very distressing. But there are a number of things that can help, although it usua...

  • Varicose veins

    Varicose veins

    About one in five adults have varicose veins. These bumpy, bluish veins are mainly a cosmetic issue for most people. But they sometimes cause a feeli...

  • Premature ejaculation

    Premature ejaculation

    Ejaculation is considered to be premature if "coming" too soon becomes a problem and affects a man’s sex life. Various treatment options are then ava...

  • Hair loss in chemotherapy

    Hair loss in chemotherapy

    Cancer treatments can have serious side effects. Many people find chemotherapy-related hair loss on their scalp and body to be especially upsetting. ...

  • Hemophilia

    Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is a disease that causes problems with blood clotting. It makes blood clot (coagulate) much more slowly than usual. The worse the ability ...

  • Oral thrush

    Oral thrush

    Most of us are familiar with our teeth feeling somewhat “fuzzy” after eating sweets. But if your entire mouth feels cottony all the time, your sense ...

  • Canker sores (mouth ulcers)

    Canker sores (mouth ulcers)

    Canker sores (mouth ulcers) are among the most common medical conditions that affect the mucous membranes lining the mouth. When a canker sore develo...

  • Period pain

    Period pain

    Although menstruation is a normal part of a woman's life, severe period pain need not be. Women don't have to simply put up with it – menstrual pain ...

  • Varicoceles

    Varicoceles

    Infertility can be caused by various things. One possible cause is a varicose vein in the scrotum, also known as a varicocele. Varicoceles are quite ...

  • Parkinson’s disease

    Parkinson’s disease

    Parkinson's disease is a disease of the nervous system. It typically occurs in old age and reduces the person's ability to move. Parkinson’s usually ...

  • Fever in children

    Fever in children

    Most parents will know what it's like to feel worried when their child has a hot, red face and high temperature. Fevers in children are usually cause...

  • Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis is the medical term for an inflammation of the liver. It is often caused by an infection with certain viruses. Hepatitis B is mainly spread...

  • Middle ear infection

    Middle ear infection

    Acute middle ear infections are one of the most common illnesses in infants. Many parents then face sleepless nights with a child that cries, has an ...

  • Tick bites

    Tick bites

    Although ticks can carry and spread disease, tick bites usually don't cause any health problems. You're much less likely to develop tick-borne enceph...

  • Corns

    Corns

    Corns develop when an area of skin is repeatedly exposed to pressure or rubbing over a long period of time. They mainly occur on your toes and on the...

  • Tinnitus

    Tinnitus

    Most people experience tinnitus from time to time, for example after a loud concert. But some people hear the typical buzzing or ringing sounds all t...

  • Kidney stones

    Kidney stones

    Kidney stones are very common, especially between the ages of 40 and 60. These small, hard crystals form in the renal pelvis, and can move down into ...

  • Low back pain

    Low back pain

    Most of us know what low back pain feels like. It usually starts suddenly and then goes away again on its own after a few days or weeks. Low back pai...

  • Neck pain

    Neck pain

    Neck pain can make your neck muscles tense up, preventing you from moving your head normally. The pain sometimes radiates into your arms or head, too...

  • Heart valve diseases

    Heart valve diseases

    When people talk about heart valve diseases, they usually mean conditions caused by damage to heart valves over time. These tend to occur in older ag...

  • Tonsillitis

    Tonsillitis

    Acute tonsillitis causes symptoms such as a sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever and tiredness. Tonsillitis that keeps coming back within short ...

  • Enlarged tonsils and adenoids

    Enlarged tonsils and adenoids

    Many children between the ages of three and six years have enlarged tonsils or adenoids. This usually isn’t anything serious. But enlarged tonsils an...

  • Obstructive sleep apnea

    Obstructive sleep apnea

    If you get enough sleep but still feel run down during the day, you may have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Many people who have sleep apnea snore an...

  • Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis

    In the early stages of osteoarthritis, the joint usually only hurts when you put strain on it. The pain can get worse over time, affecting your every...

  • Melanoma

    Melanoma

    Melanoma often looks like a dark mole. It may grow fast and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The treatment options mainly depend on ho...

  • Non-melanoma skin cancer

    Non-melanoma skin cancer

    There are different kinds of non-melanoma skin cancer. They are much more common than malignant melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer grows very slowly,...

  • Phimosis

    Phimosis

    Nearly all boys are born with a foreskin that won’t pull back (phimosis). This protects the sensitive head of the penis from rubbing against things, ...

  • Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis

    Having weak bones that easily break is a sign of osteoporosis. It's normal for bone tissue to break down as you grow older, but osteoporosis speeds u...

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    We often hear about things like serious accidents, natural disasters, or sexual abuse in the news. These traumatic events can have a great impact on ...

  • Frozen shoulder

    Frozen shoulder

    Frozen shoulder starts very gradually. At first the pain is mild, but it then gets worse and can make it difficult to sleep through the night. Over t...

  • Nail fungus

    Nail fungus

    Nail fungus is very common. Experts think that it often develops from untreated athlete's foot. It then takes a while to get rid of the brittle, disc...

  • Migraine

    Migraine

    A migraine is very different from a “normal” headache: Migraines are typically associated with moderate to severe headaches that only affect one side...

  • Tennis elbow

    Tennis elbow

    Tennis elbow is usually the result of repetitive movements or too much strain – for instance, during sports like tennis or when doing manual labor. T...

  • Erysipelas and cellulitis

    Erysipelas and cellulitis

    Erysipelas and cellulitis are skin infections that can develop if bacteria enter the skin through cuts or sores. Both infections make your skin swell...

  • Pregnancy and birth

    Pregnancy and birth

    Pregnancy is a time of change, especially if it's your first. Parents-to-be may have feelings ranging from joy and hope to worries and anxiety: How w...

  • Chronic kidney disease

    Chronic kidney disease

    Older people are especially prone to developing chronic kidney disease. The most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure. The disease ofte...

  • Health care in Germany

    Health care in Germany

    In Germany, it's usually not hard to find medical help if you become ill. There is an extensive network of easily accessible places to go for treatme...

  • Heart failure

    Heart failure

    Many people with heart failure avoid physical activity in order to prevent symptoms like shortness of breath and trouble breathing. But physical exer...

  • Asthma

    Asthma

    In asthma, people's airways become so narrow (temporarily or permanently) that it's difficult for them to breathe. With the right treatment, though, ...

  • Acute bronchitis

    Acute bronchitis

    In acute bronchitis, the lower airways (bronchi) are temporarily inflamed. The cough is usually dry at first. Later on, it may develop into a phlegmy...

  • Smoking

    Smoking

    Most people who smoke decide to stop smoking at some point. But quitting may be harder than expected. It usually takes several attempts before you ac...

  • Stroke

    Stroke

    The signs of a stroke include a sudden and severe headache, paralysis and speech difficulties. These problems are caused when part of the brain doesn...