Abramowitz L, Weyandt GH, Havlickova B, Matsuda Y, Didelot JM, Rothhaar A et al. The diagnosis and management of haemorrhoidal disease from a global perspective. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31 (Suppl 1): 1-58.
Acheson AG, Scholefield JH. Management of haemorrhoids. BMJ 2008; 336(7640): 380-383.
Alexander K, Daniel WG, Diener HG, Freund M, Köhler H, Matern S. Thiemes Innere Medizin (TIM). Stuttgart: Thieme; 1999.
Alonso-Coello P, Guyatt GH, Heels-Ansdell D, Johanson JF, Lopez-Yarto M, Mills E et al. Laxatives for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (4): CD004649.
Hahn EG, Riemann FJ. Klinische Gastroenterologie. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2000.
Joos AK, Herold A. Hämorrhoidalleiden. Neue konservative und operative Therapien für ein weit verbreitetes Leiden. Der Gastroenterologe 2010; 5: 326-335.
Klauber J, Geraedts M, Friedrich J, Wasem J. Krankenhaus-Report 2013. Mengendynamik: mehr Menge, mehr Nutzen? Stuttgart: Schattauer; 2013.
Mounsey AL, Halladay J, Sadiq TS. Hemorrhoids. Am Fam Physician 2011; 84(2): 204-210.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Haemorrhoids. 2012.
IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.
Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.
Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.