Cervical cancer is the term used to describe tumors that can grow at the lower end of the womb. These tumors usually develop from abnormal cell changes at the entrance to the womb from the vagina (the opening of the cervix). Abnormal tissue can be detected through screening and then removed. A vaccine against viruses that cause cancer (HPV vaccine) can reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
The cervix (neck of the womb) is a strong, muscular tube-like structure. The very bottom end of the cervix sticks out into the vagina a little, at the opening of the cervix. The inside of the cervix is lined with a mucous membrane. The glands in the mucous membrane produce a thick liquid (cervical mucus) that acts as a barrier, preventing germs from entering the womb from the vagina.