Up-to-date medical knowledge

The articles, illustrations and films on InformedHealth.org are based on the best that was available at the time of publication. Extensive literature searches form the foundation of our articles. When looking for answers to questions on the benefits and harms of medical interventions, we mainly use systematic reviews.

To make sure that our information is always up-to-date, we regularly check it and – if necessary – update it. You can find out when an article was last updated at the bottom of the page, below the sources.

Draft versions of our information are reviewed by experts within our institute, as well as by external experts, and also tested by users. But the final contents of the articles are determined by IQWiG employees alone.

You can find out more about our methods and processes in that topic area. Our methods are also described in the published methods of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany).

German Network for Evidence-based medicine. Chronic. 2020.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany). General methods. Version 7.0. Cologne: IQWiG; 2023.

IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.

Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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Please note that we do not provide individual advice on matters of health. You can read about where to find help and support in Germany in our information “How can I find self-help groups and information centers?

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Updated on May 8, 2024

Next planned update: 2027


Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany)

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