Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, Clark LF, Bevan JS. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (1): CD003420.
De Leo S, Lee SY, Braverman LE. Hyperthyroidism. Lancet 2016; 388(10047): 906-918.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie (DGAV). Operative Therapie benigner Schilddrüsenerkrankungen (S2k). AWMF-Registernr.: 088-007. October 03, 2015.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (DGN). Radioiodtherapie bei benignen Schilddrüsenerkrankungen (Version 5) - DGN-Handlungsempfehlung (S1-Leitlinie). October 2015.
Jameson JL, Mandel SJ, Weetmann AP. Disorders of the Thyreoid Gland. In: D. L. Kaspers, S. L. Hauser, J. L. Jameson, Fauci AS, D. L. Longo, J. Loscalzo (Ed). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.
Liu ZW, Masterson L, Fish B, Jani P, Chatterjee K. Thyroid surgery for Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (11): CD010576.
Ma C, Xie J, Wang H, Li J, Chen S. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; (2): CD010094.
Metso S, Auvinen A, Huhtala H, Salmi J, Oksala H, Jaatinen P. Increased cancer incidence after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism. Cancer 2007; 109(10): 1972-1979.
Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Greenlee MC, Laurberg P, Maia AL et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2016; 26(10): 1343-1421.
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA Drug Safety Communication: New Boxed Warning on severe liver injury with propylthiouracil. April 21, 2010.
Walter MA, Briel M, Christ-Crain M, Bonnema SJ, Connell J, Cooper DS et al. Effects of antithyroid drugs on radioiodine treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2007; 334(7592): 514.
IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.
Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.
Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.