After a stroke: Does fitness training improve health and mobility?

Photo of an older couple doing Nordic walking

Fitness training as part of rehabilitation after a stroke can increase physical fitness and improve mobility.

Strokes damage the brain because they restrict or disrupt the blood supply. Most people survive strokes. But they can be left with paralysis and spasms as well as speech and swallowing disorders. Psychological problems such as depression are also possible.

People often find it particularly important to regain mobility and speech after a stroke, as well as become as independent as possible again. Regaining emotional stability is also key.

At first glance, remaining physically fit may seem less important. But people who aren't that fit also have more difficulty doing exercises that promote recovery and maintain independence. A vicious circle can then begin: If you’re less fit, you’re less active, and you become even more unfit.

Physical fitness also plays a role in improving the health of your heart, lowering high blood pressure (hypertension), and preventing another stroke.

Research on fitness training after a stroke

Researchers from the – an international network of researchers – looked for good-quality studies that evaluated the benefits of fitness training after a stroke. They found 58 randomized controlled trials with a total of almost 2,800 men and women who had had a stroke. The average age of the participants was about 62 years.

The following three types of training were analyzed in the studies:

  • Cardiovascular programs for healthy heart and lungs (28 studies)
  • Strength training (13 studies)
  • Programs which combined cardiovascular and strength training (17 studies)

The most common form of cardiovascular training was Nordic walking (a form of exercise that aims to increase walking speed and distance). There were also programs designed to improve participants’ ability to walk unaided. For example, one fitness program consisted of 20 minutes of brisk walking three times a week. A number of programs also used treadmills or exercise bikes. Some programs started during rehabilitation, within a few weeks after the stroke, while others only started after rehabilitation had finished.

Fitness training is effective

Acceptance of these fitness programs was high. The participants in the studies attended an average of 65 to 100% of the training sessions. The cardiovascular exercises had a number of benefits. There were signs that the participants’ heart and lung fitness improved. Their mobility also improved, and they were able to walk faster and further. That reduced the physical restrictions resulting from the stroke. Programs that combined cardiovascular and strength training also improved mobility. Strength training alone had no influence on mobility. There hasn’t been enough research to be able to say whether strength training alone has any other effects.

Fitness training may also have adverse effects – for example muscle injuries, falls or heart problems. But in the studies, no falls, broken bones or injuries were observed during the fitness training programs, and there was no increase in the number of heart attacks.

Regaining strength and fitness after a stroke can require a lot of effort and motivation. But even minor improvements can lead to real progress.

Saunders DH, Sanderson M, Hayes S et al. Physical fitness training for stroke patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; (3): CD003316.

IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.

Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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Updated on October 25, 2022

Next planned update: 2025


Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany)

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