Fever in children: When to see a doctor

Photo of a doctor examining a young child

When children have a fever, it is usually caused by a harmless . But many parents start to worry if their child's temperature starts rising. Knowing what to look out for can help them decide whether to take their child to the doctor.

If a child has a fever, parents often wonder whether it could be something serious, whether they should go to the doctor or whether they should use medication to lower the fever. Generally speaking, if you feel unsure and worried, it's better to see a doctor. Often simply calling the doctor’s practice may already be enough to get the answers you need.

For instance, many common children's illnesses cause a typical rash as well as fever. If your child has typical symptoms of a more serious illness, it's a good idea to go to the doctor after calling ahead first. It is also advisable to seek medical advice if the fever stays high, comes and goes in waves or if the child's health declines despite treatment. And it can be a good idea to see a doctor if the child has a febrile seizure.

You can find a summary of the signs that a child needs medical attention in the following table:

It is a good idea to see a doctor if the fever

Icon fever is very high:
  • above 39 °C (102.2°F) in children,
  • above 38°C (100.4°F) in babies under three months old.
Icon for days lasts
  • longer than one day in babies, and
  • longer than three days in children aged two and over
  • doesn't go down after taking fever-reducing medication.
Icon in stages comes and goes or
Icon fever cramp leads to a febrile seizure.

What other symptoms need fast medical attention?

You should also go to a doctor if the child has any of the following symptoms as well as a fever:

Icon vomiting diarrhea Vomiting, diarrhea or abdominal pain
Icon rash A rash

Icon breathing
The child has breathing difficulties, groans while breathing, or unusual rattling sounds can be heard when they breathe.
Icon stiff neck The child has problems moving their chin towards their chest. A stiff neck can be a sign of meningitis.

Babies under the age of three months may be more seriously ill even though they only have a high temperature and no fever. So it's important to take them to see a doctor if

Icon stop drinking they stop drinking,
Icon changed skin color their skin color changes, or
Icon impassive they don't respond to you, appear "absent" or are very restless.

What can you do if the doctor's practice is shut?

If the doctor's practice is closed, you can go to an out-of-hours doctor in certain practices or hospitals. You will find the addresses on the internet, in your doctor's practice or by contacting your health insurer, for instance. In Germany, you can call the on-call doctors' information hotline (ärztlicher Bereitschaftsdienst) on 116117. If you need urgent medical care, you can call the emergency services for an ambulance. The emergency telephone number is 112 in Germany and many other European countries, and 911 in the U.S.

The course of an illness can change quite suddenly in children: Parents shouldn't hesitate to go back to the doctor on the same day if necessary. They are the best judges of whether their child is behaving abnormally, reacting differently, being less active than usual, feeling very poorly or not drinking enough. Their judgment and experience are very important, and can also be of great help to the doctor.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management. (NICE Clinical Guidelines; No. NG143). 2021.

IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.

Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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Please note that we do not provide individual advice on matters of health. You can read about where to find help and support in Germany in our information “How can I find self-help groups and information centers?

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Updated on December 9, 2022

Next planned update: 2025


Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany)

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