The two ovaries are the female reproductive glands (gonads). They are located on the right and left sides of the abdomen, and contain the eggs. These eggs can be fertilized by male sperm. The ovaries also produce important female sex such as estrogen and progesterone, which – among other things – regulate the menstrual cycle.
The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus: During ovulation, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg into the funnel-shaped entrance of the fallopian tube. The egg then travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. After sex, the egg can already be reached and fertilized by a sperm cell in the fallopian tube.
The uterus (womb) is roughly pear-shaped, and held in place in the pelvis by ligaments and muscles. The two fallopian tubes enter the upper, rounded end of the uterus on the right and the left. The lower part of the uterus is somewhat narrower, resembling the neck of a bottle. This section is called the cervix. The very bottom end of the cervix bulges into the vagina a little, at the opening of the cervix. On the infertile days of the menstrual cycle, the opening of the cervix is closed by thick mucus.
The inside of the uterus is lined with special membranes called the endometrium. In each menstrual cycle, female sex stimulate the endometrium to grow into a thick layer with higher blood flow so it is prepared for a fertilized egg: The egg can then become implanted in the lining of the uterus and grow into an embryo. If fertilization doesn't take place, the thick membrane tissue which has built up is shed and leaves the woman's body during her period.
During pregnancy, the uterus stretches to accommodate the growing baby. Shortly before and during childbirth, the uterine muscles repeatedly contract strongly. These contractions help to push the baby outwards through the vagina.
The vagina connects the internal and external sex organs. It receives the penis during sexual intercourse. At its upper end, the cervix provides an entrance for male sperm cells to reach the uterus – and during childbirth, it’s the passageway for the baby.