Human papillomaviruses (HPV)

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Human papillomaviruses, or HPV for short, are so common that most men and women will become infected at some point in their lives – unless they have had an HPV vaccine. These infections don't usually cause any problems. But some types of HPV can cause harmless warts. And certain types increase the risk of some kinds of cancer, especially cervical cancer.

Papillomaviruses are viruses that can cause inflammation and changes in the skin. Some of them only infect humans, which is why they are called human papillomaviruses (HPV). They probably get into the skin and mucous membranes through small cuts or wounds and then multiply inside the cells. HPV is spread by direct contact with infected areas of skin or mucous membrane.

What are the consequences of an HPV infection?

HPV infections usually go unnoticed, don't cause any symptoms, and clear up on their own. In rare cases, though, they can cause cervical cancer. The cancer may develop years or even decades after the woman was infected.

More than 200 different types of HPV are currently known. Some cause warts on the skin (also called papillomas) – for instance on the face, hands or feet. About 40 HPV strains infect the skin and mucous membranes in the genital area and are spread through sexual contact. People can have several different types of HPV at the same time.

Some types of HPV are harmless. They can cause unpleasant warts known as condylomas in the genital area, but these warts aren’t dangerous. On average, about 1% of the population have these genital warts, but they are more common in sexually active young people. In about a third of the people who have them, the warts go away on their own. The most common harmless types are HPV 6 and HPV 11.

What types of viruses increase the cancer risk?

High-risk HPV types often enter the cells of the mucous membrane around the opening of the cervix, where the vagina and cervix meet. There they may lead to abnormal cell changes (dysplasia). The medical term for this is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). These abnormal cells can develop into cancer over the years. But that rarely happens. Twelve types of HPV are known to increase the risk of cervical cancer (cervical carcinoma). The main ones are HPV 16 and 18. These are also the types of HPV that are most often found in tumor tissue.

In addition to cervical cancer, HPV viruses can also increase the risk of dysplasia affecting the vulva (VIN), the vagina (VAIN), the penis (PIN), the anus (AIN), and the mouth and throat area. Compared to cervical dysplasia, dysplasia on these parts of the body is less likely to develop into cancer.

How does HPV spread?

HPV is very common, so most men and women who are sexually active will be infected at least once in their lives. The body’s immune system usually fights off the viruses successfully, and they disappear without having caused any symptoms. People can get infected with HPV more than once.

Because HPV viruses can infect the entire genital area, you can catch HPV through any intimate contact in that area (not only sexual intercourse). Infection through body fluids like sperm, blood or saliva is considered to be unlikely. But viruses might be spread during oral sex if mucous membranes in the mouth touch areas of skin infected with HPV.

HPV is equally common in men and women. The possible consequences of the , such as cancer, are less common in men, though. The risk of in women is highest up until the age of about 30.

HPV infections can be diagnosed directly with an HPV test – or indirectly with a Pap test (smear test), which detects abnormal cells in the mucous membranes.

How can you protect yourself from HPV?

Because HPV is so common, you can already become infected with HPV the first time you have sexual contact with someone. If you would like to protect yourself from , you would either have to avoid sexual contact altogether or be sure that your partner has also never had sexual contact with other people.

Condoms don’t cover all areas of skin in the genital area that could be infected, so they don’t offer full protection from HPV. But they still reduce the risk of . And they provide protection against many other sexually transmitted diseases too.

Girls and boys can have a vaccine to protect them from with certain types of HPV. This also reduces the risk of cervical cancer.

How does HPV affect relationships?

HPV infections only rarely cause symptoms, in men or in women. Because women are examined more frequently than men, they are also more likely to be tested for HPV – for example, as part of a program. Some women find it difficult to tell their partner about their . But both partners may be infected, even in long-term relationships. It is usually not possible to find out who became infected first or how long ago they were infected. And that doesn’t affect the course of this usually harmless either.

It is not known whether partners can infect each other again and again. But research suggests that abnormal cells on the woman’s cervix are more likely to go back to normal again if a couple regularly uses condoms when having sex. This supports the belief that condoms offer at least some protection.

What happens if the infection persists?

Most HPV infections clear up on their own because the recognizes the viruses and kills them. If that doesn't happen and the HPV lasts for a long period of time, the tissue may change. This tissue often becomes normal again on its own. But it may stay abnormal or change even more. Sometimes, depending on the type of , the cells and tissue change so much that they develop into cancer.

So far there's no treatment to fight the HPV viruses themselves.

What can be done against genital warts?

Many genital warts can’t be seen or felt, but some form hard nodules with an uneven surface. Their size ranges from just a few millimeters to several centimeters, and they may be a reddish, brownish, or whitish color. They usually appear in clusters. Depending on their size and location, they can cause symptoms like itching or burning.

Genital warts can be treated locally with a medication (a cream or a solution), or they can be removed surgically. The treatment options will depend on the texture and location of the warts, and how far they have spread.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany). Benefit assessment of HPV test in primary screening for cervical cancer: Final report; Commission S10-01. 2011.

Krebsinformationsdienst (KID), Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ). Gebärmutterhalskrebs: Das Zervixkarzinom. 2016.

McCaffery K, Waller J, Nazroo J et al. Social and psychological impact of HPV testing in cervical screening: a qualitative study. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82(2): 169-174.

National Cancer Institute, National Intitutes of Health (NIH). HPV and Cancer. 2021.

Signorelli C, Odone A, Ciorba V et al. Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine for cancer prevention: a systematic review of the available evidence. Epidemiol Infect 2017; 145(10): 1962-1982.

World Health Organization (WHO). Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice. Second edition. Genf: WHO Press; 2014.

IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.

Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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Updated on September 6, 2021

Next planned update: 2024


Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany)

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