Chamberlain C, O'Mara-Eves A, Porter J, Coleman T, Perlen SM, Thomas J et al. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; (2): CD001055.
Coleman T, Chamberlain C, Davey MA, Cooper SE, Leonardi-Bee J. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (12): CD010078.
Etter JF, Burri M, Stapleton J. The impact of pharmaceutical company funding on results of randomized trials of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Addiction 2007; 102(5): 815-822.
Patnode CD, Henderson JT, Thompson JH, Senger CA, Fortmann SP, Whitlock EP. Behavioral Counseling and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Women: A Review of Reviews for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. September 2015. (AHRQ Evidence Syntheses; Volume 134).
Stanley TD, Massey S. Evidence of nicotine replacement's effectiveness dissolves when meta-regression accommodates multiple sources of bias. J Clin Epidemiol 2016; 79: 41-45.
Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; (11): CD000146.
IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.
Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. informedhealth.org can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.
Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.