Breast cancer: How exercise can help

Photo of a woman doing Nordic walking
PantherMedia / Jan Mika

Sports and exercise can have a number of positive effects both during and after treatment for breast cancer, such as improving fitness and quality of life.

For many people, exercise is an important part of getting healthy again after a major illness. It can also help to get over a disease and relieve side effects of treatment.

Cancer treatments – such as surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or radiation – can have both physical and emotional effects. There may be side effects of varying severity depending on the type of therapy and how intense it is. One common side effect is . Fatigue is debilitating physical and mental exhaustion. Most people in this situation will feel down from time to time.

How can exercise help during and after treatment?

Regular exercise can help women to maintain or improve their physical fitness. An exercise program suited to their needs can reduce exhaustion and , as well as improve sleep. This can in turn improve their wellbeing and may make it easier to cope with fears, worries and feeling down. Research suggests that yoga or aerobic sports like jogging, brisk walking or cycling can help.

Doing specific exercises with the help of a can also help improve mobility and muscle strength after surgery, for example if you can’t move your arm properly. Movement can also have a positive effect on the symptoms caused by lymphedema.

Several studies have looked into the long-term effects of physical exercise after cancer treatment. The results show that people who were physically active after treatment reported a higher quality of life than those who did not. Exercise may make it easier to cope with the disease, helping women to feel better about their bodies again.

How much exercise is needed for it to be effective?

A mix of fitness and strength training for 30-45 minutes at least three times a week can help reduce and improve wellbeing. In women who have had chemotherapy, it is more effective to do smaller amounts of exercise on three days a week rather than doing more intensive training. But more research is needed on the most effective type and intensity of exercise for different groups of women.

It is generally important to feel comfortable exercising and to adjust your exercise program to your needs. A can help with that, especially when you are just starting out. During phases of physical weakness – for example, after surgery or during chemotherapy – some exercises may no longer be possible or might not be suitable.

Can exercise have side effects?

Doing sports can, of course, generally cause injuries such as sprains. Starting arm exercises immediately after surgery may make it more difficult for wounds to heal. Too much exercise can be harmful during certain phases of the disease, for instance if someone has anemia or an . Studies show that special exercise programs supervised by trained specialists caused only a few injuries or other side effects.

Some women find it hard to move, or they find it depressing if they don’t see any progress. Then it might be time to take a break from exercising for a while. They may feel like doing more exercise at a later time. It is important to only do things that feel right.

Exercise and lymphedema

Lymphedema is a possible complication of breast cancer surgery. It is usually associated with swelling in the arm due to lymphatic fluid that builds up there. This can cause symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Women used to be advised to get plenty of rest after breast cancer surgery. It was thought that exercise increased the risk of developing . Studies have now shown that this is not the case.

Where can I find suitable sports activities?

In Germany, special sports activities are offered as part of follow-up care after cancer treatment. If they are prescribed by a doctor, they are covered by statutory health insurers. Local cancer information centers and self-help organizations can provide information on what is on offer in your area. Special sports groups for cancer patients also offer various sports and leisure activities for people who have had cancer treatment. Combining sports activities with social events can offer both physical and emotional support.

Buffart LM, van Uffelen JG, Riphagen II, Brug J, van Mechelen W, Brown WJ et al. Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 559.

Carayol M, Bernard P, Boiche J, Riou F, Mercier B, Cousson-Gelie F et al. Psychological effect of exercise in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy: what is the optimal dose needed? Ann Oncol 2013; 24(2): 291-300.

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Fong DY, Ho JW, Hui BP, Lee AM, Macfarlane DJ, Leung SS et al. Physical activity for cancer survivors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2012; 344: e70.

McNeely ML, Peddle CJ, Yurick JL, Dayes IS, Mackey JR. Conservative and dietary interventions for cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer 2011; 117(6): 1136-1148.

McNeely ML, Campbell K, Ospina M, Rowe BH, Dabbs K, Klassen TP, Mackey J, Courneya K. Exercise interventions for upper-limb dysfunction due to breast cancer treatment. Cochrane Database of Sys Rev 2010; (6): CD005211.

Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O, Gotay CC et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Cochrane Database Sys Rev 2012; (8): CD007566.

Velthuis MJ, Agasi-Idenburg SC, Aufdemkampe G, Wittink HM. The effect of physical exercise on cancer-related fatigue during cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2010; 22(3): 208-221.

IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor. can provide support for talks with doctors and other medical professionals, but cannot replace them. We do not offer individual consultations.

Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods.

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Please note that we do not provide individual advice on matters of health. You can read about where to find help and support in Germany in our information “How can I find self-help groups and information centers?

Updated on July 27, 2017
Next planned update: 2021


Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany)

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