Introduction

Photo of a boy lost in thought and a classmate (PantherMedia / goodluz) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, is a mental disorder in which children are especially inattentive, impulsive or hyperactive. “Inattentive” refers to children who have difficulties focusing and are easily distracted. Overly “impulsive” children act in a way that is extremely rash, inconsiderate, careless or impatient for their age. “Hyperactive” describes children who are restless or constantly fidgeting – for instance, they may not be able to sit still during school lessons, and get up and walk around the classroom a lot instead.

Severe ADHD can cause major problems in the life and everyday routine of both the child and their parents and brothers and sisters: Because children with ADHD behave differently than expected, they often cause trouble. They need a lot of attention. They find it more difficult to learn because of their short attention span. ADHD may also be accompanied by other kinds of mental disorders.

The number of children being diagnosed with ADHD has increased in recent years. Some people are wary of this development and doubt that ADHD is really that common. They are worried that a lot of children who are diagnosed with ADHD are simply a little overactive, but otherwise healthy. A wrong diagnosis may lead to unnecessary treatment. Being wrongly labelled as mentally ill may also affect a child’s self-esteem.

But there are also children and teenagers who actually have ADHD but are not diagnosed with it. This can also have a negative effect, because they may not get treatment that could help them. So it is very important to take the time to look into things so ADHD can be ruled out or diagnosed.

Symptoms

Inattentiveness, impulsive behavior and hyperactivity are generally not unusual for children and teenagers. But this type of behavior is extreme in ADHD and clearly different to the behavior of other children of the same age.

An inattentive child may have trouble listening at school, be easily distracted and make a lot of careless mistakes. They may also have difficulty staying focused in their free time, and are often forgetful or lose things. An impulsive child might hardly be able to wait his or her turn in school or when playing games. They may push in or interrupt others. Hyperactive children are usually fidgety, and may bounce around on their chair or have trouble being quiet. They are often restless, doing things like running around or climbing up on furniture. Inattentive and impulsive behavior can get worse when children are in situations where there is a lot to take in and process, like at a party or on vacation.

The severity of ADHD and which of the behaviors is more pronounced can vary between boys and girls and from child to child. Some children may be more affected by inattentiveness and often appear to be daydreaming. Other children are especially impulsive and hyperactive. Depending on which of these behaviors is more obvious, children with ADHD can be divided into two groups: primarily inattentive or primarily hyperactive-impulsive. Children who are extremely inattentive, but not hyperactive, are also described as having attention deficit disorder (ADD).

Causes and risk factors

The causes of ADHD are not fully understood, but it probably cannot be attributed to a single factor. Research has shown that, in children with ADHD, the chemical messenger dopamine is transported differently between the nerve cells of the brain, especially in the regions that are used for memory and learning. And there are other physical differences that may be involved in the development of ADHD. Genes play an important role.

Some experts disagree with the view that ADHD is only linked to physical or genetic factors. Instead, they consider changes in our society to be just as important. They believe that ADHD symptoms also result from overstimulation coupled with lack of exercise, modern society’s emphasis on achievement, and changes in a child’s family situation. Hardly any good-quality studies have tested these theories, though.

It is also not clear what factors might play a role in the risk of developing ADHD. Individual studies have shown that children are at greater risk if their mothers smoked, drank alcohol or consumed other drugs while pregnant. There is also a possible link between ADHD and very low birth weight or other childbirth-related problems like a lack of oxygen at birth.

Certain foods are often associated with ADHD too. Some research actually suggests that children who often eat foods containing artificial colors and preservatives are more likely to develop abnormal behavior. But nutrition appears to play a very small role at most. If you think it may be a factor, you can test whether changing a child’s diet helps.

Prevalence

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders are very common. About 4 to 5 out of 100 children are diagnosed with ADHD in Germany. However, one representative study on the prevalence of ADHD in Germany shows that only 1 to 2 out of 100 children meet the actual criteria for diagnosis, and that it is twice as common in boys as in girls. This implies that some children are wrongly diagnosed with ADHD. But there are also some children who have ADHD and are never diagnosed with it. It is not known exactly how often this happens.

Outlook

ADHD usually first develops in childhood. In adulthood the symptoms are generally much less severe or may have disappeared completely.

About 50 out of 100 children who have ADHD show at least some symptoms as adults. About 15 out of 100 still fulfill all of the criteria for an ADHD diagnosis when they are adults.

But the symptoms often change as people age. For instance, teenagers and adults with ADHD are usually less hyperactive than they were as children, but often feel restless.

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Effects

ADHD can have far-reaching effects. Children and teenagers with ADHD have more accidents, hurt themselves more often, and have more problems at school. They tend to have more conflicts with their peers and go against the rules, or behave defiantly and even aggressively. Teenagers with ADHD are more likely to smoke, drink alcohol or use other drugs, which may make other problems worse. They are also more frequently involved in crimes than other people their age who do not have ADHD. Developmental problems may arise too, such as difficulties with language development or reading and writing.

Children with ADHD may also have other emotional problems or disorders, including things like depression or anxiety disorders. Some children with ADHD have a tic disorder as well.

When adults have ADHD it usually causes problems in relationships or at work. Especially adults who were very hyperactive and impulsive as children are sometimes inconsiderate of others: They find it difficult to attend to their responsibilities, tell the truth, or respect their partner.

Diagnosis

It is best to have ADHD diagnosed by specialists who are very familiar with the disorder. These may include doctors, psychiatrists or psychotherapists who specialize in treating children and teenagers.

An in-depth talk and physical examination are important for ruling out other possible causes of the abnormal behavior. Things like sleep disorders, problems with vision or hearing, or an overactive thyroid gland might also lead to concentration problems, problems at school or hyperactivity.

The talk can also help to rule out other mental disorders as possible causes, and to diagnose any additional medical conditions. Your doctor or therapist may ask you questions like these:

  • Is your child forgetful, easily distracted or unfocused?
  • Does your child frequently climb up on things, disrupt others, or have rage attacks?
  • Does the behavior occur both at school and at home?
  • How long have you observed this kind of behavior in your child?
  • Does your child’s performance at school suffer as a result, or does your child have difficulty findings friends because of their behavior, and are they unhappy about it?

Psychological tests and questionnaires are used to approach the diagnosis in a structured way. The child’s teachers or preschool teachers may also be asked to describe the child’s behavior in school or preschool.

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Treatment

Before any treatment is started, the doctor will talk about what ADHD is and how everyone can best cope with it. As well as the parents and their child, teachers and preschool teachers may also be there too. It may then turn out that there is no urgent need for treatment. When deciding whether or not treatment is necessary, it is important to consider how much of a problem the behavior is for the child and their parents, and whether things like their performance at school are suffering as a result.

If a child only has a mild form of ADHD that does not affect his or her life too much, it might be enough to complete a parent training and education program on dealing with ADHD. These programs can be taken as a class with an instructor or done on your own using written material.

If a child has moderate or severe ADHD that is causing problems at school and in their social environment, it may be helpful to try interventions at school or have family or behavioral therapy. The type of help that will be most effective will depend on the child’s age, whether they tend to be more inattentive or more hyperactive, and what areas of their life the ADHD has the greatest impact on.

Medication can relieve ADHD symptoms. It is mainly considered for the treatment of more severe ADHD when psychological and educational approaches are not effective enough. Medicine containing the drug methylphenidate is the most commonly used medication. If methylphenidate does not work or cannot be used for other reasons, the drugs atomoxetine, dexamfetamine or lisdexamfetamine may be used instead.

Treatment at a psychosomatic or psychiatric hospital for children and teenagers may be a good idea for children who are extremely hyperactive and impulsive and have great difficulty coping in daily life, or can no longer cope at all. Hospital treatment may also be needed if the child has other severe mental disorders too.

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Everyday life

Raising a child with ADHD can be very difficult. Severe ADHD is a challenge for the entire family: Parents face a lot of conflicts because their child often has problems at school, with other children and their parents, or within the family. Brothers and sisters are often stressed or feel neglected because their parents have less time for them. The children who have ADHD also suffer as a result of their own behavior: They have a difficult time finding friends and often annoy other people.

Over time, many parents develop strategies to help them cope with ADHD. Clear rules and routines are often effective. Talking with other parents in a self-help group can help too. It is important to remember that the child’s behavior is not intentional and does not have anything to do with his or her character.

In Germany and other countries, it may be possible for the child to go on a retreat with one of their parents (in German: Mutter-/Vater-Kind-Kur) if everyday life becomes too difficult. The aim of this kind of program is to help parents and their children take a step back from their everyday problems and then, together with therapists, find ways to cope better.

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Please note that we do not provide individual advice on matters of health. You can read about where to find help and support in Germany in our information “How can I find self-help groups and information centers?”

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